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                          古詩詞中的8個傳統習俗,高雅浪漫

                          作者:未知來源:古典文學網發表于:2017-02-14閱讀:
                          踏青、折柳、登高、放紙鳶……你知道古人都有哪些風俗習慣嗎?古人的傳統習俗是怎樣形成的?中又是如何記載這些習俗的?八個習俗,與君共賞。

                          1、踏青

                          踏青,古時也叫行青、探春、尋春等,古人在春季里有踏青游樂的習俗,人們聚親約友,承大好春光到郊外游玩,然后圍坐野宴,抵暮而歸。先秦時人們就有踏青的習慣,可追溯到《詩經·溱洧》中。唐宋時期,踏青的風俗空前興盛,著名畫家張擇端的風俗畫《清明上河圖》即描繪了汴京城清明時節游樂的情景。



                          【佳作】

                          《錢塘湖春行》

                          白居易


                          孤山寺北賈亭西,水面初平云腳低。

                          幾處早鶯爭暖樹,誰家新燕啄春泥。

                          亂花漸欲迷人眼,淺草才能沒馬蹄。

                          最愛湖東行不足,綠楊陰里白沙堤。

                          2、放紙鳶

                          紙鳶起源于春秋時代,發明者為墨翟,當時是用木頭制成,被稱為“ 木鳶” 或“風鳶”,主要被用于戰爭,是戰爭時通訊和偵探的重要工具。而風箏作為人們喜愛的娛樂玩具,是從隋唐時代開始的,由于這一時期造紙業的發展,人們開始用紙張來糊制。正是紙質材料在取材上的相對便宜和方便,為風箏(紙鳶)的普及與發展奠定了基礎。宋代文化經濟的繁榮和民間手工業的興起,使得風箏的流傳更為廣泛,當時由于文人的參加,風箏在扎制和裝飾上都有了很大的發展。



                          【佳作】

                          《村居》

                          高鼎


                          草長鶯飛二月天,拂堤楊柳醉春煙。

                          兒童散學歸來早,忙趁東風放紙鳶。

                          3、飲菊花酒

                          關于菊花酒的由來眾說紛紜,漢代無論宮廷中還是民間都有重陽飲菊花酒的習俗。重陽節飲菊花酒的起源與漢代崇尚仙術、追求長生不老有關,其最初目的是求陽通神和辟谷成仙。菊花酒一般用菊花釀成,文人墨客也常采摘新鮮菊花泡酒飲,稱為“露飲”。



                          【佳作】

                          《飲酒》

                          陶淵明


                          結廬在人境,而無車馬喧。

                          問君何能爾?心遠地自偏。

                          采菊東籬下,悠然見南山。

                          山氣日夕佳,飛鳥相與還。

                          此中有真意,欲辨已忘言。

                          4、放燈

                          元宵節放燈始于漢代,當時名叫“上元燃燈”。東漢明帝劉莊因提倡佛法,曾敕令正月十五“燃燈”,并親自到寺院張燈祭神,表示對神佛的尊敬。南北朝時,元宵張燈已蔚然成風。到了唐代,元宵放燈活動盛況空前,大街小巷燈光通宵達旦,人們熙來攘往,車不能調頭,人難得轉身。除了民間放燈的風俗活動之外,歷代文人也創作了大量生動的詩詞傳唱吟詠。



                          【佳作】

                          《青玉案·元夕》

                          辛棄疾


                          東風夜放花千樹。

                          更吹落,星如雨。

                          寶馬雕車香滿路。

                          鳳簫聲動,玉壺光轉,

                          一夜魚龍舞。

                          蛾兒雪柳黃金縷。

                          笑語盈盈暗香去。

                          眾里尋他千百度。

                          驀然回首,那人卻在,

                          燈火闌珊處。

                          5、登高

                          登高是重陽節最重要的活動之一,關于其起源,一說是源于古代對山神的崇拜,認為山神能消災避禍。同時,登臨后的自然風光激發了文人創作的熱情,登高逐漸演變為感性的審美活動。登高在唐代尤為盛行,涌現了許多以登高為主題,或涉及到重陽登高習俗的名篇。



                          【佳作】

                          《九月九日憶山東兄弟》

                          王維


                          獨在異鄉為異客,每逢佳節倍思親。

                          遙知兄弟登高處,遍插茱萸少一人。

                          6、折柳

                          折柳送別在漢代本是一種具有特殊文化背景的地方性習俗,最初只是一種民間行為。隋唐以來,“折柳”一詞才開始為詩人們在別離意義上有意識的加以運用。在詩詞中,“折柳”常作為送別和寄遠的符號。“折柳”之寓意當為離情常在,表示親情或友情長系心頭,永不相忘。纏繞的柳枝是思念的象征,表達的是人們對遠行的親友安康美滿的祝福。



                          【佳作】

                          《春夜洛城聞笛》

                          李白


                          誰家玉笛暗飛聲,散入春風滿洛城。

                          此夜曲中聞折柳,何人不起故園情。

                          7、春社

                          春社是祭祀土神的日子,宋代以來,確定立春后第五個戊日為社日,故名“春社”。每逢春社日,官府及民間皆祭社神,消災避禍、祈求年豐,其中有飲酒、分肉、賽會、踏青、踩橋、婦女停針的習俗。同時,人們也借春社之機,開展各種以祭祀為主要內容的娛樂活動。隨著時代的推移,“春社”的娛樂性與鄉俗中的廟會、集市等混為一體,形成了中國人日常生活中一道饒具風味的文化風景。



                          【佳作】

                          《游山西村》

                          陸游


                          莫笑農家臘酒渾,豐年留客足雞豚。

                          山重水復疑無路,柳暗花明又一村。

                          蕭鼓追隨春社近,衣冠簡樸古風存。

                          從今若許閑乘月,拄杖無時夜叩門。

                          8、斗草

                          斗草在周代已行,《詩經·周南》中便有記載,最初以采集草藥為主。人們在單調生活之余,在田地郊野采集百草以自娛,以娛樂為目的的斗草游戲隨之流行開來。南北朝時期斗百草于南方已演變為節俗,廣為流傳。唐代之后,人們的游樂活動異常豐富,逢踏春之日,無論后宮閨閣,或是田野巷陌,斗草之盛無處不見,而且愈漸成為婦女兒童的專屬。



                          【佳作】

                          《破陣子·春景》

                          晏殊


                          燕子來時新社,

                          梨花落后清明。

                          池上碧苔三四點,

                          葉底黃鸝一兩聲。

                          日長飛絮輕。

                          巧笑東鄰女伴,

                          采桑徑里逢迎。

                          疑怪昨宵春夢好,

                          元是今朝斗草贏。

                          笑從雙臉生。
                          關鍵詞: 傳統習俗
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