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                          朱元璋為何會越長越丑?

                          作者:胡丹來源:古典文學網發表于:2017-01-10閱讀:
                          世上流傳兩種朱元璋的畫像,一正一異,或曰一美一丑。



                          左為明太祖朱元璋老年真容

                          左邊的畫像,堂堂之貌,頗有帝王威儀,許多人卻不信,說是畫工美化了的。俗話說,我信你個邪,可人們偏偏就愛“信邪”。多數人都相信,右邊這種簡直不似人類的丑像、異像是真的,就連孫中山率領國府官員去祭祀南京明孝陵時,都掛的是這樣異像(話說,此時剛剛推翻帝制,于此掛一副古代皇帝的御容,似乎不妥,所以這幅畫中,朱元璋身穿常服,正好!)。



                          然而,如果朱元璋忽然一下從墳墓里蹦出來,他一定不認得那是自己的畫像。



                          這幅朱元璋中年正面坐像,才是朱元璋真實的面容(不排除畫工在繪畫時稍加修飾,以符合圣君的相貌標準,這是古代帝王畫像常做的事情)。上面的老年半身畫像收在一本冊頁里,便于展閱,而這是一張立軸,用于宮中懸掛。這兩幅御容,一中年一老年,很明顯是一個人,他們才是真正的朱元璋。

                          我要說明的是,我們今天看人畫像,說嫌其丑,或贊其美,然而古人在美丑之外,正在乎奇不奇。“奇貌”代表了神奇的命運,其中蘊含了天命。人傳,朱元璋之貌,是“雄奇”的。就這這句話,以及朱元璋乞丐出身,打得天下的傳奇,后世便敷衍出了許多丑像(奇像)。

                          這些丑像繪制粗糙,不合禮制(如衣冠),都來自民間(也有轉入內府或勛戚之家收藏者)。它們不是朱元璋的真容,只是后世之人對傳奇帝王朱元璋的再“寫真”——所謂的真,實際上是一種心理真實。(對此我從學術上已基本澄清了,請參見胡丹:《相術、傳播與符號——朱元璋相貌之謎的探析與解讀》,《史學月刊》2015年第8期。這里就不贅述了)

                          這些丑像可分兩類,一類是鞋拔子臉(即額與下巴都較為突出,臉部卻凹進去),一類是臉上生有黑子,當然也有兩者兼備,既是鞋拔子臉,同時臉上也布黑子的。



                          此像出自清人之手,繪制較精,是朱元璋異像中少有的精品,并曾入藏清宮,正上居中還加蓋有“乾隆御覽之寶”。這位“朱太祖”還不算太丑,您可從他臉上瞧出啥門道?



                          原來在這幅畫像中,朱元璋的臉上,不多不少,生有七顆痦子。七子,正與北斗七星相對。而且每一顆都對著臉上一處要緊地方,比如雙眉正中,是印堂,右耳垂是地輪等等。其實都是古代相書的規則。說白了,所謂朱元璋異相,就是相術的衍生物,是經過神秘化修飾的圖畫。

                          大致來說,朱元璋異相之異在二:一在臉型,就是相書常稱的“天地(額與下巴)相朝,五岳(五官)俱附”之容,就是我們俗稱的鞋拔子臉;二在臉上的黑子,我們知道,古代的異人,身上常長這些東西的,以“成紋(圖形及文字)”者最貴。



                          有的異相,是鞋拔子臉,無黑子——

                          (只要寫著“明太祖”三字的,都肯定不是明朝人的作品。明朝人稱朱元璋,只會尊稱為“太祖皇帝”)



                          有的既是鞋拔子臉,也有黑子——

                          (請注意,右邊這幅是當代人的作品,作者供職于南京孝陵博物館,卻經常被當作古畫)

                          有黑子的,數量也不同:有十余粒的,36粒的,72粒的,更有“黑子盈臉”的(太多,數不清)

                          朱元璋與漢高祖,都是平民英雄,兩人還有一個共同點,就是(傳說中)都長有黑子,不同的是,在各種朱元璋畫像里,但凡有麻子,都長臉上,而漢高祖劉邦的七十二顆黑子,是長在“股”(大腿)上。看來還是漢代人有良心,沒把劉太祖的形象搞得太腌臜。在傳世圖像里,劉邦還算得器宇軒昂,朱元璋簡直就是《倚天屠龍記》里那小人相貌。



                          同時庶民出身的開國皇帝,劉邦漂亮,朱元璋丑的不行,這其中隱藏了極為微妙的群眾心理。如果我們正經講史的話,還是不要誤以為愈丑才愈真。
                          關鍵詞: 朱元璋
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